Population of Greece 2014

greece-population-2014Population of Greece

The most recent official estimate for the population of the Hellenic Republic, colloquially known as Greece, is the 2011 Census conducted by the Greek government. The census indicated that the population was 10,815,197 people in 2011. According to statistics provided by the European Union, in 2012, as a result of decreasing birth rates and migration rates, the population decreased by 60,500 people. So, based on these estimates and the census conducted in 2011, the population in 2012 was 10,754,697. Between the years 2011 and 2012, the population experienced a decrease of 0.56%. Under the assumption that the population continued such a pattern, the population in 2013 can be estimated at 10,694,535. Again, if this same population decline continues in 2014, the population of Greece in 2014 can be estimated at 10,634,710. Based on this estimate for the population in 2014 and the total land area of the country, the population density can be estimated at 81.3 people per square kilometer or 210.56 people per square mile. Assuming that the populations of other countries are held constant, Greece would still remain 79th in the world population rankings, behind Guinea, but ahead of Rwanda. So, depending on the type of population growth that Rwanda experienced over the past couple of years, Rwanda may have jumped Greece in the rankings.

Geography of Greece

Greece occupies 131,957 square kilometers or 50,949 square miles at the southern end of the Balkans, west of the Aegean Sea. Its mainland is a peninsula, which is connected to the Peloponnese peninsula by the Isthmus of Corinth. The mainland is mainly mountainous and, in fact, 80% of the country consists of mountains or hills. Mount Olympus is the tallest mountain in the country and its highest point, Mytikas peak, reaches 2,917 meters or 9,570 feet. One of the major mountain ranges in Greece is the Pindus range, whose highest point is at Mount Smolikas, reaching 2,637 meters or 8,652 feet. Another important geographic feature of the Pindus range is the Vikos Gorge in the Vikos-Aoos National Park. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the Vikos Gorge is the deepest gorge in the world, reaching 400 to 1,600 feet or 120 to 490 meters deep. In areas such as Thessaly, Central Macedonia, and Thrace, the main geographic features are the extensive plains throughout these regions. Because they are some of the only arable lands in Greece, they make up an essential part of Greece’s economy. Lastly, depending on the definition of an island, Greece contains between 1,200 to 6,000 different islands. 227 of these islands are occupied. Crete is not only the largest in geographic area, but also in terms of population.

Government of Greece

The current Constitution went into effect in 1975. However, revisions were made to the Constitution in 1986, 2001, and 2008. Greece is considered to be a parliamentary republic, made up of three separate branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the president, prime minister, and the cabinet. The president serves as the head of state, but after the revisions to the Constitution in 1986, his or her duties are mainly ceremonial. The Parliament chooses the president for a five-year term with no limits on the number of terms. The president has the power to appoint or dismiss any member of the cabinet. The current head of state is Karolos Papoulias, a member of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. The prime minister is the head of government and thus contains most of the political power. The prime minister is the leader of the political party that can obtain a vote of confidence from the Parliament and is thus appointed by the president. The current head of government is Antonis Samaras, a member of the New Democracy Party. The legislative body of Greece is a unicameral Parliament, made up of 300 elected members. The president of the Parliament is also the prime minister. Lastly, the judicial branch is split up into civil and administrative courts and has three Supreme Courts: Court of Cassation, Council of State, and the Chamber of Accounts. Each Supreme Court has a president, along with a various number of other members. In order to serve as a judge, one must graduate from the National School of Judges. In special circumstances, the Supreme Special Court may preside over a case. Each president from the other three Supreme Courts and two other members from both the Court of Cassation and the Council of State serve on the Supreme Special Court.

Education in Greece

Education in Greece is compulsory from ages 4 to 15, beginning with kindergarten and ending with gymnasia. After kindergarten, students enter primary school, which lasts for six years. Then students attend gymnasia for three years. After these mandatory portions of education, students have the option to attend an upper secondary school or a technical-vocational educational school, which allows for students to pursue something other than an academic career. After the post-compulsory secondary education, students can attend higher educational institutions in the university sector or the technological sector, depending on a student’s desires. The state also offers non-university tertiary institutes for those students that simply wish to focus on a specific vocation or trade. Lastly, 97.3% of the adult population is literate, while 99.4% of male youths and 99.3% of female youths are literate.

Health and Health Care in Greece

Before the economic crisis that hit Europe and the world, Greece was considered to have one of the finest and best health care systems in all of Europe. With universal health care, Greek citizens would pay a certain amount into the system and would pay little or nothing at all to receive health care. Along with this, those unable to afford health insurance and the unemployed were never turned away. They had an option even if they could not pay for it. However, because of the economic crisis and the unemployment rate soaring over 25%, the reality of health care in Greece is that they can no longer afford to offer care at little or no cost like the used to. Not only this, but there is a hiring freeze in both doctors and nurses because the facilities simply cannot afford new personnel. The facilities also cannot afford to repair or replace broken technology, which creates a decrease in the quality of the health care that the Greeks are obtaining. Specifically, the number of HIV and tuberculosis cases is exponentially increasing due to the lack of treatment of those already infected. Another problem that has caused a strain on the system is the high cost of prescription drugs in Greece, the burden of which is placed on the doctors and pharmacies.
According to UNICEF, as of 2012, the under-five mortality rate is 5 deaths per 1,000 children. The infant mortality rate, considered to be one of the lowest in the world, is 4 deaths per 1,000 infants. The life expectancy, which has been one of the highest in the world, is 80.6 years, with females expected to live longer than males. However, the island of Ithaca is considered to have the highest percentage in the world of those over the age of 90 years. About 33% of those living on the island will reach the age of 90. 99.8% of the population uses improved drinking water sources, while 98.6% of the population uses improved sanitation facilities. Lastly, as of 2013, Save the Children ranked Greece 19th out of 176 countries in terms of the state and safety of mothers and their newborn children.

greece-population-2013Greece Population Projections

By the year 2015, the population is estimated to grow to about 11.4 million people, which is an estimated growth of 0.88%. Then, by the year 2020, the population is projected to reach 11.45 million people, a growth of about 1.3% from the current population. Then, in 2025, the population will reach 11.49 million people, an increase of about 1.7%. Continuing this slow increase in population in 2030, the population will top 11.5 million to 11.505 million people, an increase of 1.8%. By 2035, the population is projected to reach 11.515 million people as it increases by 1.9% from the current size of the population. Lastly, by the year 2040, the population is projected to be 11.526 million people, which is an increase of about 2% from the current population.

Greece Demographics

The largest ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic, or Greece, is the native Greek population. Over 97% of the population considers themselves to be native Greek. The rest of the population is made up of other groups, such as Turks, Aromanian, Macedonians, and others from Southern Asia. There are many other ethnicities throughout the country, but these are the major groups. The main spoken language of the country is Greek. Two other major languages in the country are English and Bulgarian.

Religion in Greece

Over 97% of the population of Greece practices the Greek Orthodox religion. Besides Russia, Greece is the only other country to officially adopt an Orthodox religion. The Orthodox religion is the largest sect of Christianity, besides Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Besides the Greek Orthodox religion, some people practice Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Judaism.

Economy of Greece

Over the last few years, the economy of Greece has been enduring a bit of turmoil and struggles. The unemployment rate in Greece is currently at an approximate 24% of the labor force. Out of the 43 countries of Europe, the economy of Greece is ranked 40th. However, the GDP growth is sitting at 6.9% annually. However, the GDP per capita is only $26,294 since the total GDP is $294.3 billion. In fact, due to the country’s debt, it needed a bailout in 2011. However, this bailout was unsuccessful and therefore a second bail out was granted in 2012. This was intended to decrease the debt of the country by about 53%.

Education in Greece

As of 1997, 56% of adults had gone without completing their upper secondary education level in school; and only 16% had completed the tertiary education level in the country. However, significant progress has been made over the last 16 years. Now, only about 39% of adults go without completing their upper secondary education level, and 24% have completed the tertiary education. While this is not perfect, it is progress that will surely continue as time goes on. The numbers prove how important completing a tertiary degree is: about 82% of those with tertiary degrees have jobs, compared to the 59% of those who don’t.

Sports in Greece

Due to the fact that Greece is the home of the ancient Olympic games, sports are a large part of the country’s culture. In fact, Greece is one of only two countries that have participated in every single Olympic event. The modern day Olympics have been held in Athens three times: 1896, 1906, and 2004. The most loved and played sport is football (American soccer). The Greek team won the 2004 UEFA Championship even. Some other important sports in the country are basketball, water polo, weight lifting, and wrestling.

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Population of Germany 2014

population-of-germany-2014Population of Germany

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rates, and the population from last year, the current population in 2014 of the Federal Republic of Germany is estimated to be about 82,678,629. As a result, Germany is the sixteenth-most populous country in the world, behind Egypt, but ahead of Iran. Germany is one of the few larger countries that is experiencing a population decline instead of a population increase. At the end of 2013, the population of Germany was estimated to be about 82,726,626. Therefore, since the end of 2013, there has been a population decline of about 47,997 people or a population decline rate of about 0.05%. The population decline may come as a result of one of the lowest birthrates in the world, of about 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants. Despite this population decline, Germany remains as the most populous country in the European Union and the second-most populous country in Europe, behind Russia. Based on the total land area and the total current population, the population density of Germany is estimated to be about 231.48 people per square kilometer or 599.79 people per square mile.

Geography of Germany

Nine countries border Germany: on the north, Denmark: on the east. Poland and the Czech Republic; on the south, Austria and Switzerland; on the southwest, France and Luxembourg; and on the northwest, Belgium and the Netherlands. Overall, Germany is made up of sixteen states. The most populous state is the North Rhine-Westphalia and the least populous state is Bremen. The largest state in terms of area is Lower Saxony and the smallest state in terms of area is Bremen. The highest point in Germany is at the Zugspitze, which reaches 9,718 feet. The major rivers in Germany are the Rhine, Danube, and the Elbe. Lastly, some major natural resources of the country are iron ore, potash, uranium, copper, natural gas, and arable land and water.

Government of Germany

Germany is considered to be a federal, parliamentary, representative, democratic republic. The structure of the political system is laid out in the main constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz, established in 1949. The fundamental rights and principles established in this document include human dignity, separation of powers, and federal structure. The top three ranking officials in the government are the President, President of the Bundestag, and the Chancellor. The President is mainly concerned with the representative powers and is elected by a group of members from the Bundestag and state delegates. The President of the Bundestag is elected by the Bundestag and oversees the legislative body. The President of the Bundestag also appoints the Chancellor, who is considered to be the head of the government and has the executive power. The parliamentary body is made up of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat. The members of the Bundestag are directly elected and the members of the Bundesrat are selected from each state cabinet. Lastly, the judicial body is the Bundesverfassungsgericht, which means Federal Constitutional Court in German and is the German Supreme Court, which is solely responsible for constitutional matters. There is a specific court system for civil and criminal cases.

German Economy

The economy of Germany is considered to be a social market economy. It is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth largest by nominal Gross Domestic Product, and the fifth largest by Purchasing Power Parity. The largest sector of the German economy is the service sector, making up 71% of the economy. The industry sector makes up 28%, while the agricultural sector only makes up 1% of the economy. In July of 2013, the official unemployment rate was estimated to be about 6.6%. As a member of the European Union, the unit of currency is the euro, which was adopted by Germany on January 1, 2002. Germany is considered to be the world’s top location for any sort of trade fair. Lastly, the largest company (by revenue), as of 2011, is Volkswagen AG, which achieved 15.8 billion Euros of profit. It also has the highest number of employees of any other company in Germany.

German Transportation Network

Because of Germany’s position in Europe, the country is ideal for a large transportation network in order to assist in European travel. The Autobahn is considered the third-longest motorway network (and is also known for a lack of a speed limit). The country also has a high-speed train network throughout the various parts of the country, operated by the InterCityExpress. Germany is also made up of many large airports, including Frankfurt Airport, Munich Airport, and Hamburg Airport.

Language in Germany

The official language of Germany is German, which is also the most widely spoken language in the country. In fact, German is considered to be one of the official languages of the European Union and also as one of the official working languages of the European Commission. Other than German, Germany recognizes a few other minority languages, including Danish, Romany, and Frisan, protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Lastly, about two-thirds of the population claims to have the ability to communicate in at least one language other than German and about 27% of the population can communicate in at least two languages other than German.

Education in Germany

In Germany, education, for the most part, is left to each individual state and is considered to be a part of the constitutional sovereignty of the states. The Ministry of Education for each state employs the teachers. School attendance is required for about 9 years, starting with the primary education system and working through the secondary system. There are three traditional types of secondary education: Gymnasium, Realschule, and Hauptschule. Gymnasium is intended for the brightest students that aspire to attend university. In order to attend university, the students must pass the Abitur, an entrance requirement for almost every university. The Realschule program is a six-year program for intermediate students. The Hauptschule focuses on vocational training to help train for the working world. Lastly, after students have taken the Abitur and have been admitted to a university, in order to attend the school, a student must pay a very minimal cost per semester for tuition. Because of this cheap cost of tuition, attending a university is quite frequent in Germany.

population-of-germany-2014-foodHealth in Germany

The oldest universal health care system is in Germany. Every person is required to have health insurance, as of 2009. While some people opt out of the government funded insurance plan in order to pursue private insurance, the majority of Germans use the government-funded health insurance. 77% of health care is government-funded, while 23% is privately funded. The life expectancy of German citizens is 77 years for men and 82 years for women. It also has a very low infant mortality rate of 4 per 1,000 births. Lastly, as of 2010, the leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (41% of deaths), followed by malignant tumors (26% of deaths).

Germany Profile

Demographics of Germany

The largest ethnic group in the Federal Republic of Germany is the native German group, which makes up about 92% of the population. The next largest group is the Turks, which make up about 2.4% of the population. The remainder of the population is made up of Greeks, Poles, Russians, Spaniards, Serbo-Croatians, and Italians. The official language of the country is German. German is one of the 23 official languages in the European Union. There are many minority languages that are also recognized by the government.

Geography and Climate of Germany

Germany is in Western and Central Europe, with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France and Luxembourg to the southwest, and Belgium and the Netherlands to the northwest. The territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world.

Germany’s climate is moderate and has generally no longer periods of cold or hot weather. Northwestern and coastal Germany have a maritime influenced climate which is characterized by warm summers and mild cloudy winters. Most areas on the country’s North Sea coast have midwinter temperatures about 1.5°C or even higher. Farther inland, the climate is continental, marked by greater seasonal variations in temperature, with warmer summers and colder winters. Temperature extremes between night and day and summer and winter are considerably less in the north than in the south. During January, the coldest month, the average temperature is about 1.5°C in the north and about -2°C in the south. In July, the warmest month, it is cooler in the north than in the south. The northern coastal region has July temperatures averaging between 16°C and 18°C; at some locations in the south, the average is almost 20°C or even slightly higher.

Religion in Germany

The largest religious group in the Federal Republic of Germany is Christianity, making up about 65% of the population. Of this Christian population, there is an equal amount of Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics. However, the population is mainly based on location. Also, there are minority groups of Judaism and Islam found throughout the country.

germany-population-2013-sportsSports in Germany

The two most popular sports in the Federal Republic of Germany are soccer and tennis. The German National team has been very successful in many World Cups, especially recently. Other popular sports include volleyball, basketball, and field hockey. The Germans have frequently participated in the Olympic games and have proven to be very successful at the events.

Germany’s Population Demographic Challenge

Historical Population of Germany

The population of the Federal Republic of Germany has gone through many different stages of growth throughout the last half of a century.  The population has gone through periods of oscillating growth, increasing at points and then decreasing and then increasing and decreasing again.  Currently, the population is on the decreasing stage.

Year Population (millions)
1960 72.81
1965 75.96
1970 78.17
1975 78.67
1980 78.29
1985 77.68
1990 79.43
1995 81.68
2000 82.21
2005 82.47
2010 81.78
2011 81.8

Projected Population of Germany

The population of the Federal Republic of Germany is expected to continue the decreasing trend that it has exhibited over the last few years.  The birth rates of the country are quite low, especially compared to the death rates.  The birth rates will only range from about 8.7 births per 1000 people to about 9.8 births per 1000 people.  In contrast, the death rates will range from about 11.6 deaths per 1000 people to about 15.8 deaths per 1000 people.  However, the net migration rates throughout the next 37 years will remain positive.  Nonetheless, the population will still have a negative growth.

Year Population (millions) Percent Increase
2015 80.656 0.32%
2020 79.791 -1.1%
2025 78.971 -1.0%
2030 78.043 -1.2%
2035 76.829 -1.6%
2040 75.340 -1.9%
2045 73.625 -2.3%
2050 71.992 -2.2%


Population of Argentina 2014

population-of-argentina-2014Population of Argentina 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Argentine Republic is estimated to be 41,899,801, which makes up about 0.58% of the total world population. Argentina is ranked 32nd in the world population rankings, behind Kenya, but ahead of Algeria. On July 1, 2013, the population was recorded as 41,446,246. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by about 453,555 or by a growth rate of 1.09%. The 2010 World Population Prospects reported that the population was 40,412,000. Thus, since 2010, the population has grown by 1,487,801 people or by a growth rate of 3.68%. The population in 2000 was estimated to be about 36,931,000. Thus, since 2000, the population has grown by 4,968,801 people or by a growth rate of 13.45%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Argentina is about 15.3 people per square kilometer or 39.65 people per square mile.

Government of Argentina 2014

The Constitution of Argentina is the guiding legal document and framework for Argentina’s government. The country is considered a federal constitutional republic and a representative democracy. The government is made up of three branches that engage in checks and balances: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the president and his or her cabinet. The president is the commander-in-chief and has the ability to veto laws passed by the legislative branch. Since December of 2007, the president has been Cristina Kirchner, and as of December of 2013, the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers has been Jorge Capitanich. The legislative branch, known as the National Congress, is a bicameral legislation, made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The President of the Senate is also the Vice-President, who is currently Amado Boudou, and Julian Dominguez currently presides over the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 72 seats and the Chamber of Deputies has 257 seats. The judicial branch is made up of numerous federal judges and a Supreme Court. The President of Argentina appoints all nine members of the Supreme Court. The current President of the Supreme Court is Dr. Ricardo Lorenzetti. Lastly, there is universal suffrage in Argentina that allows for secret and equal voting in the elections for the government officials, but it is also mandatory for all citizens to vote.

Geography of Argentina 2014

The total land area of Argentina is 2,780,400 square kilometers or 1,073,518 square miles. The maximum distance from north to south is 3,694 kilometers or 2,295 miles and the maximum distance from east to west is 1,423 kilometers or 884 miles. The country borders five countries, which include Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, and Uruguay to the east. The highest point in the country is also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. Mount Aconcagua, which is in the Mendoza province, reaches 6,959 meters or 22,831 feet above sea level. The lowest point in the country is also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. Laguna del Carbon in the Santa Cruz province reaches -105 meters or -344 feet below sea level. Lastly, the Parana and Uruguay rivers join together to form the Rio de la Plata, which helps form the border between Argentina and Uruguay.

Language in Argentina 2014

The national language of Argentina is Spanish, otherwise known as Castilian in Hispanophone countries. The most frequent dialect of Castilian is Rioplatense, whose speakers are mainly located in the Rio de la Plata basin. Besides Spanish, the most widely spoken language is English. 42.3% of Argentineans claim to speak some English. However, only about 15.4% of those that claim to speak some English actually have a high level of English comprehension. But, English is taught in the schools since elementary school. Another prominent language throughout Argentina is the Brazilian dialect of Portuguese. There are also decent sized populations that speak Italian, a dialect of Arabic, and Standard German. Lastly, due to the large number of indigenous communities, there also exist a large number of indigenous languages spoken throughout the country. For example, Guarani and Quechua are two indigenous languages spoken in their respective regions.

population-of-argentina-2014-educationEducation in Argentina 2014

According to UNICEF, in 2012, the total adult literacy rate was 97.9% of the population. However, the youth literacy rate of males is 99% and the youth literacy rate of females is 99.4%. Thus, the younger population is receiving better education than the older generation, which signals an advance in society for the upcoming generation. 98.9% of males participate and attend primary schools, while 99.1% of females participate and attend the primary schools. Then, about 87.5% of males participate in secondary school, while 90.6% of females participate in secondary school. Argentina has a mandatory school system from ages 5 to 17. The first three years of secondary school are considered compulsory, but the last two to three years are not required. After secondary school, students have an option to attend a university. In fact, there are currently 39 national universities, financed by the Ministry of Finance. However, if students wish to pursue a different career track, there is a strong network of vocational schools where students can study a specific trade.

Health and Health Care in Argentina 2014

The health care system in Argentina is made up of three different proponents: private, public, and social. The private sector covers approximately 5% of the population. It is similar to the private health care in the United States, where individuals will pay their insurance companies and receive benefits based on their specific plans. The public sector covers about 50% of the population and is financed through the taxes. Health care is considered to be a universal human right in Argentina. Thus, regardless of income, nationality, or legal status, any person in Argentina has the right to use the health care facilities. However, over the past few years, the number of immigrants has increased, along with the number of unemployed. Thus, the public sector of the health care system is very crowded, resulting in waiting periods for health care. The public health care facilities also suffer from a lack of supplies. The increase in the usage of the public system has not been met with a proper increase in spending for necessary supplies or for updates in the technology. Instead, the government has decided to focus on spending more on drugs and pharmaceuticals. The social sector is known as the Obras Sociales. Every person that is considered to have formal employment must pay into this type of health care. The Obras Sociales is run by the trade unions for each sector. The employers and employees each pay a fixed rate for health insurance, which then subsidizes the actual health care costs of the employee. As of 2011, 5.3% of Argentina’s GDP was spent on health care.

As of 2012, the life expectancy of someone born in Argentina is 76.1 years. The under-five mortality rate was 14 deaths per 1,000 children under five years. The infant mortality rate is 13 infant deaths per 1,000 births. About 7.2% of children are born with low birth weight. As of 2011, 99.2% of the population uses improved drinking water sources and 96.3% of the population uses improved sanitation facilities. Lastly, only 0.4% of the population has been diagnosed with HIV in Argentina.

Argentina Profile

Argentina Population Projections

Based on the current birth, death, and migration rates of the Argentine Republic, the population is expected to increase to approximately 42.08 million people by the year 2015, which is an increase of about 1%. Then, by the year 2020, the population is expected to reach 43.69 million people, an increase of approximately 4.9% from the current population. Continuing this trend, the population will reach 45.17 million by the year 2025, increasing by 8.4% from the current population of the country. By 2030, the population will hit 46.48 million, increasing by about 11.6% from the current population. Then, by 2035, the population will increase by 14.3% and by over 1 million people up to about 47.618 million people. Also, by 2040, the population will increase to about 48.59 million people, an increase of about 16.6%. Lastly, by the mid-century mark, the population will top 50 million, reaching a population of about 50.003 million people, which will be an increase of about 20%.

Argentina Demographics

Argentina, similar to the United States, is considered to be a country of many immigrants. In fact, about 86% of the population claims to be of European descent. Then, an approximate 8% of the population is considered to be Mestizo, which is a person of mixed descent of European and American Indian. Also, an approximate 4% is of Arab or Middle Eastern descent. The last 2% is of miscellaneous races from around the globe.

Religion in Argentina

The Argentine Republic guarantees the freedom of religion constitutionally, but the government has to support the Roman Catholic Church economically. In fact, about 92% of the country identify as Christian (70%-90% out of that 92% is Roman Catholic). About 3% of the population identifies as agnostic, while 1% identify as atheists. About 2% of the population is Muslim, while only 1% of the population is Jewish. However, Argentina is considered to have the largest Jewish population of any other Latin American country. Also, the Protestant religion is the religion whose followers regularly attend the church services.

Sports in Argentina

Argentina’s national sport since 1953 is pato, which is a game played on the back of a horse with a six-handle ball. It is supposed to be a combination of polo and basketball. While pato is the national sport of the country, the most popular sport is football (or American soccer). The Argentina national team has won 25 major international championships. In fact, the Argentine Football Association (AFA) contains 3,377 football clubs. The second most popular sport is basketball; in fact, the national team is ranked first by the International Basketball Federation.

Argentinean Food

As is noted by the high percentage of Europeans in the country, there is a high cultural influence by Europe. The same goes for the food and cuisine throughout the country. The Argentine Republic consumes the second most amount of beef in the entire world due to its extreme popularity throughout the country. The cattle are fed with only grass and raised on an open range. Not only is beef a very important part of the country, but the country is also the fifth most important producer of wine in the entire world. The province of Mendoza actually accounts for 70% of the total production of wine in Argentina.


Population of Peru 2014

population-peru-2014The population of the Republic of Peru for 2014 is estimated at 30,970,408. This is based on the number of births, the number of deaths, the net migration rate, the population growth rate, and the population of 2013. Peru’s population makes up about 0.43% of the world’s total population. Peru is ranked 40th in the world population rankings, behind Afghanistan, but ahead of Venezuela. In July of 2013, the population was estimated at 30,475,144. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by 495,264 people or by a growth rate of 1.63%. The last census was conducted in 2007 and it recorded the population at 28,220,764. Thus, since the last census, the population has grown by 2,749,644 people or by an average annual growth rate of 1.39%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Peru is estimated at 24.2 people per square kilometer or 62.67 people per square mile.

Demographics of Peru

The Peruvian population mainly identifies as part of the mestizo ethnic group, which is a group of mixed ancestries. The next largest ethnic group is the Quechua ethnic group. The rest of the population consists of small populations of the Aymara, Amazonian, Mulatto, and White ethnic groups. The official language of the Republic of Peru is Spanish. However, there are approximately 105 individual languages throughout the country. But, about 11 of these languages are considered to be extinct. Lastly, the literacy rate is considered to be about 85%.

Religion in Peru

The majority of the population of the Republic of Peru identifies as Roman Catholic (over 75% of the population). However, there have also been faiths and religions that are based on the worship of the Sun god, the Pachamama, and other aspects of nature. Also, there are other faiths and churches due to the work of missionaries. However, overall, the population of Peru is mainly religious, with very few claiming to be atheist or agnostic.

Sports in Peru

As is the same for many Latin American countries, the main sport of the Republic of Peru is football (American soccer). Football is the sport that is played by people of all social classes, ages, and skill levels. Another popular sport throughout the country is volleyball, especially women’s volleyball. Lastly, bullfighting is a very popular sport, despite attempts by pro-animal lobbies to get rid of bullfighting.

Government of Peru 2014

As established by the Constitution of Peru, the government of Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic under a multi-party system in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch consists of the president, prime minister, and the Council of Ministers. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The president also appoints the prime minister and the Council of Ministers. The current president is Ollanta Humala, a member of the Gana Peru alliance. The prime minister is simply the head of the Council of Ministers. The current prime minister, as of February 24, 2014, is Rene Cornejo, an independent politician in Peru. The legislative branch is a unicameral body called Congress. Congress consists of 130 members that serve five-year terms. While either the executive or legislative branches may propose bills, only Congress can pass the bills. The Gana Peru alliance has the largest number of seats in Congress, followed by Fuerza 2011. Lastly, the judicial branch is independent of both the executive and legislative branches. The head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court of Peru, which consists of three supreme sectors: civil, criminal, and constitutional and social. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Francisco Tavara.

Education in Peru 2014

According to the Constitution, education is both compulsory and free for the primary and secondary levels. In fact, depending on a student’s academic ability and financial situation, a student may be able to receive higher education without cost at a public university. Schooling begins in March and lasts until December. Primary schooling begins at age six and lasts for six years, while secondary schooling lasts five years. Students have the option to attend technical schools instead of higher education universities. Bachelor degree programs typically last five years in Peru. Lastly, the Minister of Education, currently Patricia Salas O’Brien oversees and administers the education system in the nation.

As of 2012, the total adult literacy rate in Peru was 89.6% of the adult population. 98% of male youths are literate, while only 96.7% of female youths are literate. About 81.5% of students that start primary school will finish all the years of schooling, but about 97.1% of children enroll in primary school. In 2012, the Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Peru last among 65 countries in mathematics, science, and reading performance. Lastly, the government spends about 2.6% of the annual Gross Domestic Product on education.

Water Supply and Sanitation in Peru 2014

In the 1980s, only 30% of the population had water coverage and 9% had sanitation coverage. Now, the Ministry of Housing, Construction, and Sanitation oversee the supply and sanitation of water. But, there have been large improvements to the water supply and, as of 2011, 95.3% have access to improved drinking water sources, though only 66.1% of those in rural areas have such access. Also, 71.6% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, but only 38.4% of those in rural areas have such access. Some current challenges that the country faces include poor service quality, deficient sustainability of the current water systems in place, and a lack of financial resources to improve the water sources. Lastly, in 2006, President Garcia announced his plan to start an investment project to help provide water for everyone.

Health and Health Care in Peru 2014

About 45% of the population is considered to be indigenous. Thus, the health care of the country is very unique because the indigenous use medical practices that their ancestors utilized. Other than that, the Ministry of Health handles about 80% of the public sector’s health services. The Ministry is funded by taxes and loans. Peru has a form of a social security program known as EsSALUD, which is funded by payroll taxes that every employer must pay for their employees. However, overall, Peru spends about 2.7% of its annual Gross Domestic Product on health. There are about 9.2 physicians per 10,000 people and 12.7 nurses and midwives per 10,000 people.
The under-five mortality rate is 18 deaths per 1,000 children under the age of five. The infant mortality rate is 14 deaths per 1,000 infants, while the neonatal mortality rate is 9 deaths per 1,000 infants. The average life expectancy for a Peruvian citizen is 74.5 years with women living longer than men. About 0.4% of the population has been diagnosed with HIV. 37% of deaths result from communicable diseases, 46% result from noncommunicable diseases, and 17% result from injuries. Lastly, as of 2008, 21.7% of women over the age of 20 were obese and 11.1% of men over the age of 20 were obese.

Machu Picchu Peru

7,000 feet above sea level and nestled on a small hilltop between the Andean Mountain Range, the majestic city soars above the Urabamba Valley below. The Incan built structure has been deemed the “Lost Cities”, unknown until its relatively recent discovery in 1911. Archaeologists estimate that approximately 1200 people could have lived in the area, though many theorize it was most likely a retreat for Incan rulers. Due to it’s isolation from the rest of Peru, living in the area full time would require traveling great distances just to reach the nearest village. Machu Picchu is vulnerable to threats from a variety of sources. While natural phenomena like earthquakes and weather systems can play havoc with access, the site also suffers from the pressures of too many tourists. Traveling from Cusco through the Urubamba Valley to Machu Picchu is a journey that emanates ancient history from start to finish. It’s here that active adventurers can step back in time and literally walk in the footsteps of the Inca.

Road to Machu Picchu

population-peru-2014-povertyPoverty in Peru 2014

In 2004, about 48.5% of the Peruvian population was considered to be living in poverty. However, as of 2012, according to the World Bank, only 25.8% of the population is considered to be living in poverty now. A majority of the poverty accounts for the indigenous populations living in rural areas. These indigenous have little access to health care, quality education, and poor transportation infrastructure. Thus, due to their location in these rural areas, they are left behind economically. One particularly poor area is the Andean highlands where the Quechua and Aymara communities live. Women are also highly affected by poverty, especially in the rural areas. Because of the problem of the location in rural areas, many people have decided to migrate to urban areas to allow for more opportunities to escape a life of poverty. Migration is a large reason that the poverty rate has declined. Also, the economy was boosted after a 2006 trade agreement with the United States. Lastly, since the end of 2013, many experts have worried about the effect of climate change on the reduction in poverty. In 2012, the Amazon has recently ceased emitting oxygen and began to emit carbon dioxide. Many speculate that this climate change has been the cause of many droughts in the Amazon, which has affected poverty.

Historical Population of Peru

The population of the Republic of Peru has consistently increased over the last half a century.  However, the increase has slightly slowed down near the latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.

Year Population (millions)
1960 9.929
1965 11.47
1970 13.119
1975 15.14
1980 17.29
1985 19.46
1990 21.69
1995 23.83
2000 25.86
2005 27.56
2010 29.08
2011 29.4

Projected Population of Peru

The population of the Republic of Peru is expected to follow the same sort of trends that the historical data shows.  One reason of this is due to the high birth rates, which will remain between 20 and 11 births per 1000 people.  Also, the death rates will remain between 5 and 9 deaths per 1000 people.  Also, the migration rate will remain positive over the next 37 years.

Year Population (millions) Percent Increase
2015 30.715 0.8%
2020 32.344 5.3%
2025 33.914 4.9%
2030 35.281 4.0%
2035 36.408 3.2%
2040 37.272 2.4%
2045 37.863 1.6%
2050 38.197 0.9%

Population of Russia 2014

population-of-russia-2014Population of Russia 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Russian Federation is estimated to be about 142,590,534, which makes up about 1.98% of the world’s total population. It ranks 9th in the population rankings, behind Bangladesh, but ahead of Japan. Since Russia is a part of two continents due to its immense size, it is the sixth-most populous country in Asia, but the most populous country in Europe. At the end of 2013, the population was 142,833,689, which indicates a population decline of 243,155 or a population decay rate of 0.17%. Russia is the most populated country that is experiencing a population decline. The next largest country that is experiencing such a decline is Japan. Based on the total land area and the total population, the population density of Russia in 2014 is estimated to be about 8.34 people per square kilometer or 21.63 people per square mile.

Geography of Russia 2014

Based on the total land area, Russia is the largest country in the world, spanning 17,098,242 square kilometers or 6,592,800 square miles and spanning two continents, Europe and Asia. Geographically, most of the country is made up of plains. The plains along the northern coast are made up of tundra, but other plains in the north are made up of heavily forested areas. The southeastern borders are made up of various mountain ranges. One such mountain range is the Caucasus mountain range, which contains the highest point in all of Russia and Europe: Mount Elbrus, which reaches 5,642 meters or 18,510 feet. The volcanoes in the Kamchatka Peninsula include Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which is the highest active volcano in Europe and Asia, reaching 4,750 meters or 15,584 feet. The Ural Mountains serve as a border between Europe and Asia. Lastly, Lake Baikal is the largest body of fresh water in Russia and is also the oldest, deepest, and purest fresh water lake in the world. In fact, it contains 20% of the world’s fresh water.

Government of Russia 2014

The Constitution of Russia defines the government of Russia as a federation and semi-presidential republic. The representative democracy consists of three branches: legislative, executive, and judiciary. The legislative branch is a bicameral legislature, made up of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The Duma has 450 members and the Federation Council has 166 members. The legislative branch has the power to adopt federal law, declare war, and the power of impeachment of the President of Russia. The executive branch consists of the President, which is the head of state, the Prime Minister, which is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The current President is Vladimir Putin and the current Prime Minister is Dmitry Medvedev. The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and has the ability to veto laws. The judiciary branch consists of the Constitutional Court and Supreme Court. The Federation Council appoints the justices based on the President’s recommendation. Lastly, the main political parties in the country are United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. Both Putin and Medvedev are members of the United Russia party.

Education in Russia 2014

Education is guaranteed by the Constitution and thus is free for all Russian citizens. The Ministry of Education and Science mainly regulates the education system. During 2011, the Russian government spent $20 billion on education throughout the country. While the private option is available for those students that do not wish to use the public education system, only 1% enroll in pre-school, 0.5% enroll in elementary school, and 17% enroll in private higher education institutions. UNESCO reports that 96% of the adult population in Russia has completed lower secondary schooling. As of 2007, it is required that students attend eleven years of secondary schooling, which begins with first grade at age six. However, with parental approval, students of ages 15 through 18 have the option to drop out from school. After the ninth year, students have the ability to opt out of the normal education path and enter into a vocational training program, which helps students specialize in certain professional areas to prepare for a career. The Unified state examination is the university entrance exam for all Russian universities. Some of the most well known universities are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University, both of which are considered federal universities. Lastly, as of 2008, the education system does not provide many options at all for students with mental handicaps and disabilities.

Health Care in Russia 2014

As of 1996, the Russian government mandated that everyone must have medical insurance. Thus, the Constitution now guarantees that free health care for all Russian citizens. As of 2011, the average life expectancy of adults is 69 years. For males, the life expectancy is about 63 years; for females, the life expectancy is about 75 years. There is a very high mortality rate of working-age males, which accounts for the much lower life expectancy for men. Leading causes of death are alcohol poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, and violent crimes. It is estimated that Russians drink, on average, 15 liters or 26 pints of pure alcohol every year. Also, Russia is considered the world leader in smoking. In 2011, President Putin pledged $10 billion to invest in improving health care. Part of his reform included an increase in the tax that companies must pay for medical insurance. Lastly, the under-five mortality rate, according to UNICEF, is 12 deaths per 1,000 children, and the infant mortality rate is 10 deaths per 1,000 infants.

Language in Russia 2014

The official language of Russia is Russian. However, based on a right guaranteed by the Constitution, certain regions throughout the country have adopted other languages as co-official with Russian. In fact, there are twenty-seven other languages that are co-official with Russian. Besides these co-official languages, there are over one hundred minority languages spoken in the country. Other than Russian, the most widely spoken languages are Tatar and Ukranian. But, Russian is considered the most geographically widespread language in Europe and Asia and is considered one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Lastly, of Russian citizens, 15% of the population knows a foreign language. The most prevalent foreign language is English. 78% of the speakers of a foreign language speak English, 16% speak German, 4% speak French, and 2% speak Turkish.

population-of-russia-2014-transportationTransportation in Russia 2014

The railway transportation system in Russia is controlled by the state. 3.6% of Russian Gross Domestic Product is the operation of the rails. They also control 39% of the total freight traffic and 42% of total passenger traffic. The total length of rails is over 85,500 kilometers, or 53,127 miles, which is the second in the world, next to the United States. However, Russia has the most electric rails in the world, totaling over 44,000 kilometers or 27,340 miles. As of 2006, Russia had 933,000 kilometers of total roads and 755,000 kilometers of paved roads. There are also 1,216 airports throughout the country, totaling over 600,000 kilometers or 370,000 miles of total runway length. Lastly, most major cities are considered to have quality public transportation systems. Cities like Moscow and Saint Petersburg have underground metros, which are in fact the oldest metros in Russia and are the busiest and fastest metros in the world.

Russia Population Demographic Challenge

Russia Population Projections

The population of the country is predicted to resume its population decrease, however, starting in 2015. By 2015, the population is projected to decrease to about 140.75 million people, which is a decrease of about 1.6% from the current population. Again, by 2020, the population will decrease again to about 139.31 million people, a decrease of about 2.6%. Then, by 2025, the population will reach about 137.48 million people, an approximate decrease of about 3.9%. Between 2025 and 2030, the population will decrease to about 134.82 million people, which is an approximate decrease of 5.7%. Then by 2035, the population will decrease by about 7.8% to 131.86 million. Lastly, in 2040, the population will drop below 130 million, reaching 129.14 million people, which is a decrease of 9.7% from the current Russian population. The main cause for this decrease in population is that the death rate in the Russian Federation is consistently higher than the birth rate.

Russia Demographics

Out of the approximate 143 million people in the Russian Federation, about 81% of these people identify as being of Russian nationality. About 4% of the population identifies as Tatars; about 1.4% identifies as Ukrainian; about 1.1% identifies as Bashkirs; about 1% identifies as Chuvashes; lastly, the other 11.8% is some other obscure or unspecified ethnicity. Roughly 85% of the total population is of some sort of European ethnic group, compared to the old rate of more than 86%.

Religion in Russia

The largest denomination in the Russian Federation is the Russian Orthodox Church, a denomination of Christianity. There are almost 5,000 religious associations with the Russian Orthodox Church. The second largest religion in Russia is Islam, coming in at about 19 million Muslims. There are also approximately 2 million Protestants and 1.3 million Catholics. Both Buddhism and Judaism are also fairly widespread in the country. Over 10% of the Federation’s Jewish population resides in Moscow.

Official Holidays of Russia

While in the United States, the New Year is celebrated from New Year’s Eve to New Year’s Day, in the Russian Federation, there is an official New Year’s Vacation. Starting on New Year’s Eve, the holiday is celebrated similarly to Christmas, sharing gifts, cooking meals, and having a large celebration with family and friends. However, this celebration continues through the New Year and goes until January 5. This holiday became an official Russian Holiday by Peter the Great in 1700. Some people even celebrate it twice, once on January 1 and once on January 14, the date that corresponds to January 1 before 1918 when the Julian calendar was used. The next holiday celebrated is the Orthodox Christmas, which is celebrated from on January 7th and lasts until January 19th. The next celebration is on February 23rd, the Defender of the Motherland Day. This day is a tribute to all of the Russian soldiers that have ever protected the country. March 8th celebrates International Women’s Day, which dates back to 1857 when female textile workers protested poor working conditions. The holiday has been celebrated since 1917 and is a celebration of women in Russia and all over the world.

russia-population-2013-victory-dayThe next holiday is on May 1st, which is the Spring and Labor Celebration. This receives its origin from the Chicago worker strikes in 1886, demanding shorter working days. It became a holiday for the first time on May 1st, 1890. Victory Day is the most celebrated and loved holiday of Russia, remembering all of the soldiers that died in World War II. This day, Victory Day, is held on May 9th. Russia Day, June 12th, celebrates when the Declaration of the Sovereignty of the Russian Federation was accepted in 1991. Lastly, November 4th celebrates Civil Unity Day, which is the day celebrating Moscow’s liberation from the Polish armies in 1612.