Population of Greece 2014

greece-population-2014Population of Greece

The most recent official estimate for the population of the Hellenic Republic, colloquially known as Greece, is the 2011 Census conducted by the Greek government. The census indicated that the population was 10,815,197 people in 2011. According to statistics provided by the European Union, in 2012, as a result of decreasing birth rates and migration rates, the population decreased by 60,500 people. So, based on these estimates and the census conducted in 2011, the population in 2012 was 10,754,697. Between the years 2011 and 2012, the population experienced a decrease of 0.56%. Under the assumption that the population continued such a pattern, the population in 2013 can be estimated at 10,694,535. Again, if this same population decline continues in 2014, the population of Greece in 2014 can be estimated at 10,634,710. Based on this estimate for the population in 2014 and the total land area of the country, the population density can be estimated at 81.3 people per square kilometer or 210.56 people per square mile. Assuming that the populations of other countries are held constant, Greece would still remain 79th in the world population rankings, behind Guinea, but ahead of Rwanda. So, depending on the type of population growth that Rwanda experienced over the past couple of years, Rwanda may have jumped Greece in the rankings.

Geography of Greece

Greece occupies 131,957 square kilometers or 50,949 square miles at the southern end of the Balkans, west of the Aegean Sea. Its mainland is a peninsula, which is connected to the Peloponnese peninsula by the Isthmus of Corinth. The mainland is mainly mountainous and, in fact, 80% of the country consists of mountains or hills. Mount Olympus is the tallest mountain in the country and its highest point, Mytikas peak, reaches 2,917 meters or 9,570 feet. One of the major mountain ranges in Greece is the Pindus range, whose highest point is at Mount Smolikas, reaching 2,637 meters or 8,652 feet. Another important geographic feature of the Pindus range is the Vikos Gorge in the Vikos-Aoos National Park. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the Vikos Gorge is the deepest gorge in the world, reaching 400 to 1,600 feet or 120 to 490 meters deep. In areas such as Thessaly, Central Macedonia, and Thrace, the main geographic features are the extensive plains throughout these regions. Because they are some of the only arable lands in Greece, they make up an essential part of Greece’s economy. Lastly, depending on the definition of an island, Greece contains between 1,200 to 6,000 different islands. 227 of these islands are occupied. Crete is not only the largest in geographic area, but also in terms of population.

Government of Greece

The current Constitution went into effect in 1975. However, revisions were made to the Constitution in 1986, 2001, and 2008. Greece is considered to be a parliamentary republic, made up of three separate branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the president, prime minister, and the cabinet. The president serves as the head of state, but after the revisions to the Constitution in 1986, his or her duties are mainly ceremonial. The Parliament chooses the president for a five-year term with no limits on the number of terms. The president has the power to appoint or dismiss any member of the cabinet. The current head of state is Karolos Papoulias, a member of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. The prime minister is the head of government and thus contains most of the political power. The prime minister is the leader of the political party that can obtain a vote of confidence from the Parliament and is thus appointed by the president. The current head of government is Antonis Samaras, a member of the New Democracy Party. The legislative body of Greece is a unicameral Parliament, made up of 300 elected members. The president of the Parliament is also the prime minister. Lastly, the judicial branch is split up into civil and administrative courts and has three Supreme Courts: Court of Cassation, Council of State, and the Chamber of Accounts. Each Supreme Court has a president, along with a various number of other members. In order to serve as a judge, one must graduate from the National School of Judges. In special circumstances, the Supreme Special Court may preside over a case. Each president from the other three Supreme Courts and two other members from both the Court of Cassation and the Council of State serve on the Supreme Special Court.

Education in Greece

Education in Greece is compulsory from ages 4 to 15, beginning with kindergarten and ending with gymnasia. After kindergarten, students enter primary school, which lasts for six years. Then students attend gymnasia for three years. After these mandatory portions of education, students have the option to attend an upper secondary school or a technical-vocational educational school, which allows for students to pursue something other than an academic career. After the post-compulsory secondary education, students can attend higher educational institutions in the university sector or the technological sector, depending on a student’s desires. The state also offers non-university tertiary institutes for those students that simply wish to focus on a specific vocation or trade. Lastly, 97.3% of the adult population is literate, while 99.4% of male youths and 99.3% of female youths are literate.

Health and Health Care in Greece

Before the economic crisis that hit Europe and the world, Greece was considered to have one of the finest and best health care systems in all of Europe. With universal health care, Greek citizens would pay a certain amount into the system and would pay little or nothing at all to receive health care. Along with this, those unable to afford health insurance and the unemployed were never turned away. They had an option even if they could not pay for it. However, because of the economic crisis and the unemployment rate soaring over 25%, the reality of health care in Greece is that they can no longer afford to offer care at little or no cost like the used to. Not only this, but there is a hiring freeze in both doctors and nurses because the facilities simply cannot afford new personnel. The facilities also cannot afford to repair or replace broken technology, which creates a decrease in the quality of the health care that the Greeks are obtaining. Specifically, the number of HIV and tuberculosis cases is exponentially increasing due to the lack of treatment of those already infected. Another problem that has caused a strain on the system is the high cost of prescription drugs in Greece, the burden of which is placed on the doctors and pharmacies.
According to UNICEF, as of 2012, the under-five mortality rate is 5 deaths per 1,000 children. The infant mortality rate, considered to be one of the lowest in the world, is 4 deaths per 1,000 infants. The life expectancy, which has been one of the highest in the world, is 80.6 years, with females expected to live longer than males. However, the island of Ithaca is considered to have the highest percentage in the world of those over the age of 90 years. About 33% of those living on the island will reach the age of 90. 99.8% of the population uses improved drinking water sources, while 98.6% of the population uses improved sanitation facilities. Lastly, as of 2013, Save the Children ranked Greece 19th out of 176 countries in terms of the state and safety of mothers and their newborn children.

greece-population-2013Greece Population Projections

By the year 2015, the population is estimated to grow to about 11.4 million people, which is an estimated growth of 0.88%. Then, by the year 2020, the population is projected to reach 11.45 million people, a growth of about 1.3% from the current population. Then, in 2025, the population will reach 11.49 million people, an increase of about 1.7%. Continuing this slow increase in population in 2030, the population will top 11.5 million to 11.505 million people, an increase of 1.8%. By 2035, the population is projected to reach 11.515 million people as it increases by 1.9% from the current size of the population. Lastly, by the year 2040, the population is projected to be 11.526 million people, which is an increase of about 2% from the current population.

Greece Demographics

The largest ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic, or Greece, is the native Greek population. Over 97% of the population considers themselves to be native Greek. The rest of the population is made up of other groups, such as Turks, Aromanian, Macedonians, and others from Southern Asia. There are many other ethnicities throughout the country, but these are the major groups. The main spoken language of the country is Greek. Two other major languages in the country are English and Bulgarian.

Religion in Greece

Over 97% of the population of Greece practices the Greek Orthodox religion. Besides Russia, Greece is the only other country to officially adopt an Orthodox religion. The Orthodox religion is the largest sect of Christianity, besides Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Besides the Greek Orthodox religion, some people practice Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Judaism.

Economy of Greece

Over the last few years, the economy of Greece has been enduring a bit of turmoil and struggles. The unemployment rate in Greece is currently at an approximate 24% of the labor force. Out of the 43 countries of Europe, the economy of Greece is ranked 40th. However, the GDP growth is sitting at 6.9% annually. However, the GDP per capita is only $26,294 since the total GDP is $294.3 billion. In fact, due to the country’s debt, it needed a bailout in 2011. However, this bailout was unsuccessful and therefore a second bail out was granted in 2012. This was intended to decrease the debt of the country by about 53%.

Education in Greece

As of 1997, 56% of adults had gone without completing their upper secondary education level in school; and only 16% had completed the tertiary education level in the country. However, significant progress has been made over the last 16 years. Now, only about 39% of adults go without completing their upper secondary education level, and 24% have completed the tertiary education. While this is not perfect, it is progress that will surely continue as time goes on. The numbers prove how important completing a tertiary degree is: about 82% of those with tertiary degrees have jobs, compared to the 59% of those who don’t.

Sports in Greece

Due to the fact that Greece is the home of the ancient Olympic games, sports are a large part of the country’s culture. In fact, Greece is one of only two countries that have participated in every single Olympic event. The modern day Olympics have been held in Athens three times: 1896, 1906, and 2004. The most loved and played sport is football (American soccer). The Greek team won the 2004 UEFA Championship even. Some other important sports in the country are basketball, water polo, weight lifting, and wrestling.

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Population of Germany 2014

population-of-germany-2014Population of Germany

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rates, and the population from last year, the current population in 2014 of the Federal Republic of Germany is estimated to be about 82,678,629. As a result, Germany is the sixteenth-most populous country in the world, behind Egypt, but ahead of Iran. Germany is one of the few larger countries that is experiencing a population decline instead of a population increase. At the end of 2013, the population of Germany was estimated to be about 82,726,626. Therefore, since the end of 2013, there has been a population decline of about 47,997 people or a population decline rate of about 0.05%. The population decline may come as a result of one of the lowest birthrates in the world, of about 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants. Despite this population decline, Germany remains as the most populous country in the European Union and the second-most populous country in Europe, behind Russia. Based on the total land area and the total current population, the population density of Germany is estimated to be about 231.48 people per square kilometer or 599.79 people per square mile.

Geography of Germany

Nine countries border Germany: on the north, Denmark: on the east. Poland and the Czech Republic; on the south, Austria and Switzerland; on the southwest, France and Luxembourg; and on the northwest, Belgium and the Netherlands. Overall, Germany is made up of sixteen states. The most populous state is the North Rhine-Westphalia and the least populous state is Bremen. The largest state in terms of area is Lower Saxony and the smallest state in terms of area is Bremen. The highest point in Germany is at the Zugspitze, which reaches 9,718 feet. The major rivers in Germany are the Rhine, Danube, and the Elbe. Lastly, some major natural resources of the country are iron ore, potash, uranium, copper, natural gas, and arable land and water.

Government of Germany

Germany is considered to be a federal, parliamentary, representative, democratic republic. The structure of the political system is laid out in the main constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz, established in 1949. The fundamental rights and principles established in this document include human dignity, separation of powers, and federal structure. The top three ranking officials in the government are the President, President of the Bundestag, and the Chancellor. The President is mainly concerned with the representative powers and is elected by a group of members from the Bundestag and state delegates. The President of the Bundestag is elected by the Bundestag and oversees the legislative body. The President of the Bundestag also appoints the Chancellor, who is considered to be the head of the government and has the executive power. The parliamentary body is made up of the Bundestag and the Bundesrat. The members of the Bundestag are directly elected and the members of the Bundesrat are selected from each state cabinet. Lastly, the judicial body is the Bundesverfassungsgericht, which means Federal Constitutional Court in German and is the German Supreme Court, which is solely responsible for constitutional matters. There is a specific court system for civil and criminal cases.

German Economy

The economy of Germany is considered to be a social market economy. It is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth largest by nominal Gross Domestic Product, and the fifth largest by Purchasing Power Parity. The largest sector of the German economy is the service sector, making up 71% of the economy. The industry sector makes up 28%, while the agricultural sector only makes up 1% of the economy. In July of 2013, the official unemployment rate was estimated to be about 6.6%. As a member of the European Union, the unit of currency is the euro, which was adopted by Germany on January 1, 2002. Germany is considered to be the world’s top location for any sort of trade fair. Lastly, the largest company (by revenue), as of 2011, is Volkswagen AG, which achieved 15.8 billion Euros of profit. It also has the highest number of employees of any other company in Germany.

German Transportation Network

Because of Germany’s position in Europe, the country is ideal for a large transportation network in order to assist in European travel. The Autobahn is considered the third-longest motorway network (and is also known for a lack of a speed limit). The country also has a high-speed train network throughout the various parts of the country, operated by the InterCityExpress. Germany is also made up of many large airports, including Frankfurt Airport, Munich Airport, and Hamburg Airport.

Language in Germany

The official language of Germany is German, which is also the most widely spoken language in the country. In fact, German is considered to be one of the official languages of the European Union and also as one of the official working languages of the European Commission. Other than German, Germany recognizes a few other minority languages, including Danish, Romany, and Frisan, protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Lastly, about two-thirds of the population claims to have the ability to communicate in at least one language other than German and about 27% of the population can communicate in at least two languages other than German.

Education in Germany

In Germany, education, for the most part, is left to each individual state and is considered to be a part of the constitutional sovereignty of the states. The Ministry of Education for each state employs the teachers. School attendance is required for about 9 years, starting with the primary education system and working through the secondary system. There are three traditional types of secondary education: Gymnasium, Realschule, and Hauptschule. Gymnasium is intended for the brightest students that aspire to attend university. In order to attend university, the students must pass the Abitur, an entrance requirement for almost every university. The Realschule program is a six-year program for intermediate students. The Hauptschule focuses on vocational training to help train for the working world. Lastly, after students have taken the Abitur and have been admitted to a university, in order to attend the school, a student must pay a very minimal cost per semester for tuition. Because of this cheap cost of tuition, attending a university is quite frequent in Germany.

population-of-germany-2014-foodHealth in Germany

The oldest universal health care system is in Germany. Every person is required to have health insurance, as of 2009. While some people opt out of the government funded insurance plan in order to pursue private insurance, the majority of Germans use the government-funded health insurance. 77% of health care is government-funded, while 23% is privately funded. The life expectancy of German citizens is 77 years for men and 82 years for women. It also has a very low infant mortality rate of 4 per 1,000 births. Lastly, as of 2010, the leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (41% of deaths), followed by malignant tumors (26% of deaths).

Germany Profile

Demographics of Germany

The largest ethnic group in the Federal Republic of Germany is the native German group, which makes up about 92% of the population. The next largest group is the Turks, which make up about 2.4% of the population. The remainder of the population is made up of Greeks, Poles, Russians, Spaniards, Serbo-Croatians, and Italians. The official language of the country is German. German is one of the 23 official languages in the European Union. There are many minority languages that are also recognized by the government.

Geography and Climate of Germany

Germany is in Western and Central Europe, with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France and Luxembourg to the southwest, and Belgium and the Netherlands to the northwest. The territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world.

Germany’s climate is moderate and has generally no longer periods of cold or hot weather. Northwestern and coastal Germany have a maritime influenced climate which is characterized by warm summers and mild cloudy winters. Most areas on the country’s North Sea coast have midwinter temperatures about 1.5°C or even higher. Farther inland, the climate is continental, marked by greater seasonal variations in temperature, with warmer summers and colder winters. Temperature extremes between night and day and summer and winter are considerably less in the north than in the south. During January, the coldest month, the average temperature is about 1.5°C in the north and about -2°C in the south. In July, the warmest month, it is cooler in the north than in the south. The northern coastal region has July temperatures averaging between 16°C and 18°C; at some locations in the south, the average is almost 20°C or even slightly higher.

Religion in Germany

The largest religious group in the Federal Republic of Germany is Christianity, making up about 65% of the population. Of this Christian population, there is an equal amount of Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics. However, the population is mainly based on location. Also, there are minority groups of Judaism and Islam found throughout the country.

germany-population-2013-sportsSports in Germany

The two most popular sports in the Federal Republic of Germany are soccer and tennis. The German National team has been very successful in many World Cups, especially recently. Other popular sports include volleyball, basketball, and field hockey. The Germans have frequently participated in the Olympic games and have proven to be very successful at the events.

Germany’s Population Demographic Challenge

Historical Population of Germany

The population of the Federal Republic of Germany has gone through many different stages of growth throughout the last half of a century.  The population has gone through periods of oscillating growth, increasing at points and then decreasing and then increasing and decreasing again.  Currently, the population is on the decreasing stage.

Year Population (millions)
1960 72.81
1965 75.96
1970 78.17
1975 78.67
1980 78.29
1985 77.68
1990 79.43
1995 81.68
2000 82.21
2005 82.47
2010 81.78
2011 81.8

Projected Population of Germany

The population of the Federal Republic of Germany is expected to continue the decreasing trend that it has exhibited over the last few years.  The birth rates of the country are quite low, especially compared to the death rates.  The birth rates will only range from about 8.7 births per 1000 people to about 9.8 births per 1000 people.  In contrast, the death rates will range from about 11.6 deaths per 1000 people to about 15.8 deaths per 1000 people.  However, the net migration rates throughout the next 37 years will remain positive.  Nonetheless, the population will still have a negative growth.

Year Population (millions) Percent Increase
2015 80.656 0.32%
2020 79.791 -1.1%
2025 78.971 -1.0%
2030 78.043 -1.2%
2035 76.829 -1.6%
2040 75.340 -1.9%
2045 73.625 -2.3%
2050 71.992 -2.2%