Population of Russia 2014

population-of-russia-2014Population of Russia 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Russian Federation is estimated to be about 142,590,534, which makes up about 1.98% of the world’s total population. It ranks 9th in the population rankings, behind Bangladesh, but ahead of Japan. Since Russia is a part of two continents due to its immense size, it is the sixth-most populous country in Asia, but the most populous country in Europe. At the end of 2013, the population was 142,833,689, which indicates a population decline of 243,155 or a population decay rate of 0.17%. Russia is the most populated country that is experiencing a population decline. The next largest country that is experiencing such a decline is Japan. Based on the total land area and the total population, the population density of Russia in 2014 is estimated to be about 8.34 people per square kilometer or 21.63 people per square mile.

Geography of Russia 2014

Based on the total land area, Russia is the largest country in the world, spanning 17,098,242 square kilometers or 6,592,800 square miles and spanning two continents, Europe and Asia. Geographically, most of the country is made up of plains. The plains along the northern coast are made up of tundra, but other plains in the north are made up of heavily forested areas. The southeastern borders are made up of various mountain ranges. One such mountain range is the Caucasus mountain range, which contains the highest point in all of Russia and Europe: Mount Elbrus, which reaches 5,642 meters or 18,510 feet. The volcanoes in the Kamchatka Peninsula include Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which is the highest active volcano in Europe and Asia, reaching 4,750 meters or 15,584 feet. The Ural Mountains serve as a border between Europe and Asia. Lastly, Lake Baikal is the largest body of fresh water in Russia and is also the oldest, deepest, and purest fresh water lake in the world. In fact, it contains 20% of the world’s fresh water.

Government of Russia 2014

The Constitution of Russia defines the government of Russia as a federation and semi-presidential republic. The representative democracy consists of three branches: legislative, executive, and judiciary. The legislative branch is a bicameral legislature, made up of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The Duma has 450 members and the Federation Council has 166 members. The legislative branch has the power to adopt federal law, declare war, and the power of impeachment of the President of Russia. The executive branch consists of the President, which is the head of state, the Prime Minister, which is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The current President is Vladimir Putin and the current Prime Minister is Dmitry Medvedev. The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and has the ability to veto laws. The judiciary branch consists of the Constitutional Court and Supreme Court. The Federation Council appoints the justices based on the President’s recommendation. Lastly, the main political parties in the country are United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. Both Putin and Medvedev are members of the United Russia party.

Education in Russia 2014

Education is guaranteed by the Constitution and thus is free for all Russian citizens. The Ministry of Education and Science mainly regulates the education system. During 2011, the Russian government spent $20 billion on education throughout the country. While the private option is available for those students that do not wish to use the public education system, only 1% enroll in pre-school, 0.5% enroll in elementary school, and 17% enroll in private higher education institutions. UNESCO reports that 96% of the adult population in Russia has completed lower secondary schooling. As of 2007, it is required that students attend eleven years of secondary schooling, which begins with first grade at age six. However, with parental approval, students of ages 15 through 18 have the option to drop out from school. After the ninth year, students have the ability to opt out of the normal education path and enter into a vocational training program, which helps students specialize in certain professional areas to prepare for a career. The Unified state examination is the university entrance exam for all Russian universities. Some of the most well known universities are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University, both of which are considered federal universities. Lastly, as of 2008, the education system does not provide many options at all for students with mental handicaps and disabilities.

Health Care in Russia 2014

As of 1996, the Russian government mandated that everyone must have medical insurance. Thus, the Constitution now guarantees that free health care for all Russian citizens. As of 2011, the average life expectancy of adults is 69 years. For males, the life expectancy is about 63 years; for females, the life expectancy is about 75 years. There is a very high mortality rate of working-age males, which accounts for the much lower life expectancy for men. Leading causes of death are alcohol poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, and violent crimes. It is estimated that Russians drink, on average, 15 liters or 26 pints of pure alcohol every year. Also, Russia is considered the world leader in smoking. In 2011, President Putin pledged $10 billion to invest in improving health care. Part of his reform included an increase in the tax that companies must pay for medical insurance. Lastly, the under-five mortality rate, according to UNICEF, is 12 deaths per 1,000 children, and the infant mortality rate is 10 deaths per 1,000 infants.

Language in Russia 2014

The official language of Russia is Russian. However, based on a right guaranteed by the Constitution, certain regions throughout the country have adopted other languages as co-official with Russian. In fact, there are twenty-seven other languages that are co-official with Russian. Besides these co-official languages, there are over one hundred minority languages spoken in the country. Other than Russian, the most widely spoken languages are Tatar and Ukranian. But, Russian is considered the most geographically widespread language in Europe and Asia and is considered one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Lastly, of Russian citizens, 15% of the population knows a foreign language. The most prevalent foreign language is English. 78% of the speakers of a foreign language speak English, 16% speak German, 4% speak French, and 2% speak Turkish.

population-of-russia-2014-transportationTransportation in Russia 2014

The railway transportation system in Russia is controlled by the state. 3.6% of Russian Gross Domestic Product is the operation of the rails. They also control 39% of the total freight traffic and 42% of total passenger traffic. The total length of rails is over 85,500 kilometers, or 53,127 miles, which is the second in the world, next to the United States. However, Russia has the most electric rails in the world, totaling over 44,000 kilometers or 27,340 miles. As of 2006, Russia had 933,000 kilometers of total roads and 755,000 kilometers of paved roads. There are also 1,216 airports throughout the country, totaling over 600,000 kilometers or 370,000 miles of total runway length. Lastly, most major cities are considered to have quality public transportation systems. Cities like Moscow and Saint Petersburg have underground metros, which are in fact the oldest metros in Russia and are the busiest and fastest metros in the world.

Russia Population Demographic Challenge

Russia Population Projections

The population of the country is predicted to resume its population decrease, however, starting in 2015. By 2015, the population is projected to decrease to about 140.75 million people, which is a decrease of about 1.6% from the current population. Again, by 2020, the population will decrease again to about 139.31 million people, a decrease of about 2.6%. Then, by 2025, the population will reach about 137.48 million people, an approximate decrease of about 3.9%. Between 2025 and 2030, the population will decrease to about 134.82 million people, which is an approximate decrease of 5.7%. Then by 2035, the population will decrease by about 7.8% to 131.86 million. Lastly, in 2040, the population will drop below 130 million, reaching 129.14 million people, which is a decrease of 9.7% from the current Russian population. The main cause for this decrease in population is that the death rate in the Russian Federation is consistently higher than the birth rate.

Russia Demographics

Out of the approximate 143 million people in the Russian Federation, about 81% of these people identify as being of Russian nationality. About 4% of the population identifies as Tatars; about 1.4% identifies as Ukrainian; about 1.1% identifies as Bashkirs; about 1% identifies as Chuvashes; lastly, the other 11.8% is some other obscure or unspecified ethnicity. Roughly 85% of the total population is of some sort of European ethnic group, compared to the old rate of more than 86%.

Religion in Russia

The largest denomination in the Russian Federation is the Russian Orthodox Church, a denomination of Christianity. There are almost 5,000 religious associations with the Russian Orthodox Church. The second largest religion in Russia is Islam, coming in at about 19 million Muslims. There are also approximately 2 million Protestants and 1.3 million Catholics. Both Buddhism and Judaism are also fairly widespread in the country. Over 10% of the Federation’s Jewish population resides in Moscow.

Official Holidays of Russia

While in the United States, the New Year is celebrated from New Year’s Eve to New Year’s Day, in the Russian Federation, there is an official New Year’s Vacation. Starting on New Year’s Eve, the holiday is celebrated similarly to Christmas, sharing gifts, cooking meals, and having a large celebration with family and friends. However, this celebration continues through the New Year and goes until January 5. This holiday became an official Russian Holiday by Peter the Great in 1700. Some people even celebrate it twice, once on January 1 and once on January 14, the date that corresponds to January 1 before 1918 when the Julian calendar was used. The next holiday celebrated is the Orthodox Christmas, which is celebrated from on January 7th and lasts until January 19th. The next celebration is on February 23rd, the Defender of the Motherland Day. This day is a tribute to all of the Russian soldiers that have ever protected the country. March 8th celebrates International Women’s Day, which dates back to 1857 when female textile workers protested poor working conditions. The holiday has been celebrated since 1917 and is a celebration of women in Russia and all over the world.

russia-population-2013-victory-dayThe next holiday is on May 1st, which is the Spring and Labor Celebration. This receives its origin from the Chicago worker strikes in 1886, demanding shorter working days. It became a holiday for the first time on May 1st, 1890. Victory Day is the most celebrated and loved holiday of Russia, remembering all of the soldiers that died in World War II. This day, Victory Day, is held on May 9th. Russia Day, June 12th, celebrates when the Declaration of the Sovereignty of the Russian Federation was accepted in 1991. Lastly, November 4th celebrates Civil Unity Day, which is the day celebrating Moscow’s liberation from the Polish armies in 1612.

Population of the United States 2014

population-of-united-states-2014Population of the United States 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, according to the United States Census Bureau, the population of the United States of America for 2014 is estimated to reach 318,892,103, which makes up about 4.45% of the world’s total population. The United States is the 3rd most populous country in the world, behind India, but ahead of Indonesia. The population as of December 31, 2013 was estimated at 317,292,487. Thus, over the course of the year, the population is projected to grow by 1,599,616 people or by a growth rate of 0.5%. The last census was conducted in 2010 and it recorded the population at about 308,400,000 people. Thus, since the last census, the population has grown by 10,492,103 people or by an average annual growth rate of 0.85%. Based on the total population of the country and the total land area, the population density of the United States is about 34.8 people per square kilometer or 90.14 people per square mile.

Government of the United States 2014

The United States Constitution establishes the government as a constitutional republic and representative democracy, made up of the executive legislative, and judicial branches. The executive branch consists of the president, vice-president, and the cabinet, along with some other executive departments and agencies. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and has the power to veto bills passed by the legislation. He or she is considered both the head of state and the head of government. Presidents serve four-year terms and can only be reelected once. They are also voted into office by an indirect election through what is called the Electoral College. The current president is Barack Obama, a member of the Democratic Party, and is currently serving his second term. The current vice-president is Joe Biden, also a member of the Democratic Party.

The legislative branch is a bicameral legislation known as the United States Congress. Congress consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 435 members from the various states and each state is granted a certain number of representatives based on population. The states are divided into congressional districts, based on the number of representatives the state has. California has the largest number of representatives with 53 representatives. Members of the House are elected for two-year terms and have no limit to the number of terms that they can serve. The current speaker of the House of Representatives is John Boehner, a member of the Republican Party. The Senate consists of 100 members, two from each state. Senators are directly elected and serve six-year terms without a limit on reelection. The vice-president serves as the president of the Senate, so the current president of the Senate is Joe Biden. Congress has the ability to introduce and pass legislation and declare war. Lastly, the United States Supreme Court, made up of nine justices, heads the judicial branch. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is John Roberts. Once a justice is appointed to the Supreme Court, he or she can serve for the rest of his or her life without being elected. The president appoints the justices, subject to the approval of the Senate. Below the Supreme Court, there are many different levels of federal courts, including the United States Court of Appeals and the United States District Courts.

population-of-united-states-2014-prisonPrison Population in the United States 2014

Across the United States, there are 1.719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails. Throughout these correctional facilities throughout the United States, there are over 2,400,000 million people in one of these facilities, which is about 0.75% of the entire country’s population. It is estimated that about 688,000 people are released from prisons every year. Also, about 12 million people are brought in and out of local jails every year. About 337,000 people are in one of these types of facilities for some sort of drug charge. There are also about 12,000 children in a correctional facility for simply violating their parole or probation by some technicality of the rules. There are even more than 3,000 children in facilities for committing crimes such as truancy or running away from home. Lastly, the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, even higher than Russia who is notorious for its harsh prison system. As of 2008, Louisiana had the highest incarceration rate in the country and Maine had the lowest.

Poverty and Inequality in the United States 2014

While income grew by 36.9% between 1979 and 2007, for the top 1% in America’s economy, income grew by 200.5%, while income grew only by 18.9% for the bottom 99%. In fact, the top 1% controls 53.9% of the total growth. The average income for a person in the top 1% is about $1,040,506, while the average income for someone in the bottom 99% is $42,694. A study conducted by the Brookings Institute indicates that the more economically vibrant a city is, the more unequal it is at the same time. In cities like Atlanta, Miami, Boston, and San Francisco, households in the 95th percentile of income make over 15 times the average income than those households in the 20th percentile. The cities with the lower levels of inequality were found to be throughout the South and the Midwest. Much of the reasoning behind the increasing levels of poverty and inequality is the heavy effect that the recession had on the working poor. While the rich were still getting richer, the poor were experiencing higher levels of unemployment and were subject to minimum-wage jobs, causing their incomes to decrease as a result of the recession. Lastly, studies have shown that the more unequal a society, the more problems that arise from growing poverty, such as lower levels of trust, higher levels of depression, higher levels of obesity, etc., affect society as a whole, not simply the ones suffering from poverty.

Health Statistics in the United States 2014

As of 2012, the under-five mortality rate is 7 deaths per 1,000 children. The infant mortality rate is 6 deaths per 1,000 infants, while the neonatal morality rate is 4 deaths per 1,000 babies. Overall life expectancy in the United States is about 78.8 years, with an average of 76 for men and 81 for women. As a result, the United States is ranked 26th out of 36 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The average for the OECD is 80.1 years. The leading cause of death is heart disease, which accounts for about 615,000 deaths every year. According to the American Cancer Society, in 2014, there will be about 1,665,540 new cancer diagnoses and 585,720 cancer deaths. Lastly, it is projected that cancer will be the number one cause of death by 2030.

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US Population 2013

Population of France 2014

population-of-france-2014Population of France 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rates, and the population of 2013, as of January 1, 2014, the current population of the French Republic is estimated to be about 65,821,000. The French population makes up only 0.9% of the total world population and ranks 21st in population rankings, behind Thailand, but in front of the United Kingdom. It is also considered to be the third-most populous country in Europe. At the end of 2013, the population of France was estimated to be about 64,291,280. Therefore, since the end of 2013, there has been a population increase of about 1,529,720 people or a population growth rate of about 2.38%. Based on the total land area and the total current population, the population density of France is estimated to be about 119.31 people per square kilometer or 309.02 people per square mile.

Geography of France 2014

The French mainland spans 551,695 square kilometers or 213,010 square miles, which is the largest area among all of the European Union members. It borders eight European nations: Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Spain, and Andorra. The highest point in France is actually the highest point in Western Europe as well. Mont Blanc, a mountain in the Alps on the border of Italy and France, reaches 15,782 feet. Major rivers in France include the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and the Rhone. Geographic features range from mountain ranges to plains along the coasts. Lastly, France has the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, spanning 4,260,637 square miles.

French Government 2014

The French government is considered to be a unitary semi-presidential republic, combined with its democratic traditions. On September 28, 1958, a referendum by the French people accepted the constitution to be law. The Executive Branch is made up of two figures: President and Government. The President is the head of state and is directly elected by the voters. The Prime Minister, who heads the Council of Ministers, leads the Government branch of the Executive Branch. Unlike the method of choosing the President, the President appoints the Prime Minister. The Legislative Branch is made up of a bicameral Parliament. The Parliament is comprised of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly carries a lot of power, including the power to dismiss the Cabinet. The members of the Assembly are directly elected and represent the districts and the people. The Senate is chosen by the Electoral College and remains in office for 6-year terms. Lastly, the two major political parties are the left-wing French Socialist Party and the right-wing Union for a Popular Movement Party.

French Economy 2014

In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, France has the seventh largest economy in the world and the second largest economy in the European Union. As of 2010, France also ranked fourth in the Fortune Global 500, which is a higher ranking than both Germany and the United Kingdom. As of 2002, the euro completely replaced the franc as the form of currency. The government is the majority owner of many infrastructure industries, including railway, electricity, aircraft, and nuclear power. The most important part of the economy is the financial sector, which includes the banking and insurance industries. In fact, France has the world’s largest insurance company. Lastly, in July of 2013, the unemployment rate was recorded to be 11%.

population-of-france-2014-transportationTransportation in France 2014

As of 2008, the French railway system, operated by SNCF, the French National Railway Company, consists of approximately 29,473 kilometers or 18,314 miles of rails. Part of the railway system includes a high-speed train system, which reaches around 320 kilometers per hour or 199 miles per hour. In terms of roadways, there are 1,027,183 kilometers or 638,262 miles of usable roads throughout France. As a result, France has the most extensive network of roads in all of Europe. There are no registration fees or road taxes, but there are tolls throughout the country. Lastly, there are 475 airports throughout France. The largest and busiest airport in France is Charles de Gaulle Airport, which is in Paris.

Language in France 2014

The Constitution of France establishes French as the official language of France. Despite the fact that there is no obligation for publications to be written in French, all commercial and workplace communications must be in French. Besides French, though, there are 77 vernacular minority languages throughout the country. France has attempted to bring more prominence to the language in the international community, but since the United States emerged as a larger power than France, English is more prominent internationally than French.

Health Care in France 2014

According to the World Health Organization, France has the best performing health care system in the world in terms of availability and organization of health care providers. France has a universal health care system, which receives its funding through the government insurance. The goal of the health care system is to give patients low-cost health care, flexible choices in health care, but also the doctors can have autonomy. The insurance receives funding through the compulsory payments by individual citizens. The level of income determines the amount of health insurance a person pays for. The government pays for about 80% of the health care costs of a patient. In fact, the more sick or the more things that you need treatment for, the less you pay. About 65% of the hospital beds are provided by public hospitals, 15% by private non-profit facilities, and 20% by private for-profit facilities. There currently exist five different health-care funds: General, Agricultural, Students, Independent, and Public Servants. The average life expectancy is 78 years for men and 85 years for women. The physician-to-patient rate is 3.22 physicians for every 1000 patients. Lastly, France is ranked 128th in terms of the fattest countries, despite the growing trend of obesity in France.

Education in France 2014

The Ministry of National Education, headed by the Minister of National Education, regulates the education system throughout the country. All teachers are hired by the state, and, in fact, teachers of public primary and secondary schools are civil servants, provided by the state. The school year lasts from September to early July. At age 6, students begin primary school, where they learn to develop their reading and writing skills. Primary school lasts from age 6 to about age 11, when the student begins their secondary education. The secondary education is split up into two levels. Students attend the first level of their secondary education for about four years, where they typically study French, Mathematics, History, Geography, and Citizenship. The second level lasts three years and is broken up into three series of studies: natural sciences, social sciences, and languages. Students also have an option to attend a professional or vocational school at this point, to help them prepare for a future career. Lastly, the higher education in France is similar to the United States: Bachelor, Master, and Doctorate levels. The Bachelor level only takes 6 semesters, while the Master level takes 4 semesters.

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France Population 2013

Population of Canada 2014

population-of-canada-2014Population of Canada 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the population of Canada for 2014 is estimated at 35,344,962, which makes up about 0.49% of the world’s total population. Canada’s population is ranked 37th largest, behind Uganda, but ahead of Iraq. As of July of 2013, the population was recorded at 35,181,704. Thus, since last July, the population has grown by an estimate of 163,258 people or by a growth rate of 0.46%. The last census conducted in Canada was conducted in July of 2011. The 2011 Census indicated that the population was about 34,482,779. Thus, since the 2011 census, the population has grown by 862,183 people or by a growth rate of 2.5%. Based on the total land area and the total population of the country, the population density of Canada is 3.87 people per square kilometer or 10.07 people per square mile.

About 80% of the population lives within 150 kilometers or 93 miles of the United States border. The main areas of concentration are Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, British Columbia Lower Mainland, and Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. The aboriginal population is growing at a rate almost double the rate that the national Canadian population is growing. The country also has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world and accepts a large number of refugees from various countries throughout the world.

Government of Canada 2014

The Constitution Act of 1867 established the Canadian government as a federal constitutional monarchy. The government consists of a federal, legislative, and judicial branch and the Canadian Crown is the foundation of all three branches. Canada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations, which means that the Crown of Canada is also the Crown of England. Thus, the Crown of Canada is Queen Elizabeth II. Her role is mainly legal and practical instead of a political role. The Queen then appoints the Governor General of Canada, currently David Lloyd Johnston. The Governor General will then appoint the Prime Minister. Typically, the Governor General must pick the person that he or she knows can garner support and confidence from the House of Commons (thus, usually a member of the majority party). Currently, the Prime Minister of Canada is Stephen Harper, a member of the Conservative Party. The prime minister serves as the head of government and leads the Cabinet. The legislative branch consists of the Queen (under the representation of the governor general), the Senate, and the House of Commons. The Governor General will appoint all 105 members of the Senate, while the people elect the 305 members of the House of Commons. The legislative branch is responsible for passing laws and creating legislation. The governor general calls the parliament into session in the Queen’s name. The judicial branch is also performed under the Queen’s name and power. The Supreme Court of Canada is considered to be the court of last resort. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and eight other justices. The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice under the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The current Chief Justice is Beverley McLachlin. Under the Supreme Court is Federal Court, which works together with the Federal Court of Appeals and the Tax Court of Canada. Lastly, because of the presence of federalism, the legislative abilities are split between the federal and provincial governments.

population-of-canada-2014-economyEconomy of Canada 2014

Canada is considered to be one of the most developed countries in the world. Its economy is considered to be the world’s eleventh largest with a nominal Gross Domestic Product of $1.82 trillion. Toronto’s stock exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world with about 1,577 companies involved in the exchange. As of February 2014, the unemployment rate is 7.0% of the working force population. The province/territory with the highest unemployment rate is Nunavut with an employment rate of 14.6% and the one with the lowest unemployment rate is Saskatchewan with a rate of 3.9%. Only five provinces/territories have unemployment rates lower than the national average. The Consumer Prince Index annual inflation in February was 1.1%. Lastly, as of December 2013, the monthly GDP growth was -0.5%.

Education in Canada 2014

The education system is controlled by each individual province and territory, instead of the national government. The literacy rate is 99% for both males and females. Overall, about 90% of Canadians have a high school degree and about 14% have a college degree. The nation as a whole spends around 5.2% of its Gross Domestic Product on education. Recently, the Canadian government has worked on an initiative that allows foreigners that studied and graduated in Canada to become permanent residents of Canada. Typically, students begin school in Kindergarten around age 5 or grade one around 6 and continue until grade twelve around age 17 or 18. However, Quebec includes one less year than the other provinces. Lastly, there are various religious and linguistic options for schools, including Protestant school systems and French school systems.

Health and Health Care in Canada 2014

The Canada Health Act of 1984 established the publicly funded health care system in Canada. As a result, Canada has a single-payer system, meaning that the government is the main single-payer of health care. If someone enrolls in the public health care system, he or she receives a health care issued by the Provincial Ministry of Health and receives the same quality and level of care as everyone else in the system. While the public system is available, about 28% of Canadians take part in the private sector of health care. Most times, Canadians purchase private health care for the purposes of the parts of health care that the system does not cover, such as prescription drugs and dentistry. Some criticisms of the public health care is the length of wait times for health care, restrictions on private care, and the number of people that cross borders to receive health care.
Life expectancy in Canada is the second highest among the G8 countries at 81.3 years on average. However, Canada has the second highest infant mortality rates among the G8 countries at 4.5 infant deaths per 1,000 births. In 2008, about 24.6% of the male population and 23.9% of the female population over the age of 20 were considered obese. 24% of the male population and 17% of the female population over the age of 15 use tobacco. Canada has the second lowest ratio of physicians and nurses per 1,000 people. There are only 2.2 physicians for every 1,000 Canadians. Thus, there are an estimated 77,759 physicians throughout Canada. There are also only 9.0 nurses per 1,000 people and thus about 318,105 nurses throughout Canada. Behind the United States, Canada has the second highest per capita expenditure on health care, spending about $3,895 per capita on health. However, the per capita rate in Canada is almost half the per capita rate in the United States. Canada spends 10.1% of its Gross Domestic Product on health care, compared to the United States spending 16% of its Gross Domestic Product. They also spend 16.7% of tax revenue on health care, compared to the United States spending 18.5% of revenues on health care. But, Canada pays for 69.8% of health costs, while the United States only pays for 45.4% of health costs.

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Canada Population 2013

Population of Italy 2014

Population of Italy 2014

Based on the total number of births, total number of deaths, net migration rate, and the population of 2013, the current population of the Italian Republic is estimated to be about 61,470,336. The Italian population makes up only 0.85% of the total world population and ranks 23rd in the population rankings, behind the United Kingdom, but ahead of Myanmar. It is also the sixth-most populous country in Europe. At the end of 2013, the population of Italy was estimated to be 61,428,753, which indicates a population growth of 41,583 people or a population growth rate of 0.068% since the start of 2014. Based on the total land area and the total population, the population density of Italy is estimated to be about 203.99 people per square kilometer or 528.34 people per square mile.

Geography of Italy 2014

Italy has a total area of 301,338 square kilometers or 116,347 square miles. The country comprises the Italian peninsula and numerous islands. The largest islands of Italy are Sicily and Sardinia. The Italian peninsula borders France, Austria, Slovenia, and Switzerland. The Apennine Mountains run from the north to the south through the center of the country. The highest point in Italy and the European Union is located in the Apennine Mountains: Mont Blanc, which reaches 4,810 meters or 15,782 feet. The Alps run across the northern part of the country. The longest river in the country is the Po River, which stretches from the northern border by France across the center through to the Adriatic Sea for 652 kilometers or 405 miles. There are fourteen total volcanoes in Italy; however, only four are active: Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Vesuvius, which is the only active volcano on mainland Europe and is notorious for the destruction of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Government of Italy 2014

Since June 2, 1946, as the result of a constitutional referendum, the government of Italy has been a unitary, parliamentary republic. Anti-fascist representatives framed the Constitution after the Italian Civil War ended. Now, there exist three branches to the government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch consists of the President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. As of May 15, 2006, the President is Giorgio Napolitano. The President is elected by a joint session of the Italian Parliament for a seven-year term and serves as the Head of State. He or she appoints the Prime Minister after a vote of confidence from the Parliament. The Prime Minister is considered the Head of Government, along with the President of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers must give a vote of approval for any sort of executive action that the Prime Minister attempts. He or she also does not have the ability to dissolve Parliament. As of February 22, 2014, the Prime Minister is Matteo Renzi. The legislative branch is considered to be perfectly bicameral, which means that each house has equal powers. The two houses are the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. Lastly, the highest court in the judicial branch is the Supreme Court of Cassation, while the Constitutional Court of Italy decides the constitutionality of laws ever since World War II.

Economy of Italy 2014

The Italian economy is a market economy, and as of 2012, it was the ninth-largest economy in the world and the fifth-largest economy in Europe in terms of nominal Gross Domestic Product. In terms of Purchasing Power Parity, it was the tenth largest in the world and the fourth largest in Europe. Before World War II, the country was predominantly an agricultural based economy. However, now it is a very industrialized country that profits from many different industries. The business sector is considered highly innovative and influential. The major portions of the business sector are the small and medium sized corporations, instead of globally multinational organizations. Most of Italy’s trading exports are to Germany and France and it was the seventh largest exporter in the world in 2009. Despite these positive aspects of the economy, Italy has the second highest debt ratio in Europe next to Greece. In 2010, the public debt stood for 116% of the Gross Domestic Product. Also, by the end of January 2014, the unemployment rate of Italy stood at 12.9%, an increase from 12.7% in December of 2013. Lastly, there is a major economic divide between the north and south in Italy. The north represents a demographic that lies above the per-capita GDP of the European Union, while the south lies quite below the per-capita GDP of the European Union.

Education in Italy 2014

The government mandates that all students from ages six to sixteen attend school. The education system is broken up into five different stages: kindergarten, primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school, and university. Kindergarten is non-compulsory and lasts for three years before primary school begins (ages three to six). Primary school lasts for five years and consists of a standard curriculum, regardless of whether or not a student attends a private or public institution. Students must take courses in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, and many other subjects. The lower secondary school lasts three years, where the students add to their studies from primary school with technology and linguistic studies. They must study a language other than Italian and English. At the end of their three years, the students must pass an exam in order to proceed with their education journey. Upper secondary depends on the subject and activity that a student wishes to study. Some students study languages, some students study natural sciences, and some study the arts. Some also participate in a vocational track, which helps them prepare for a career. Because education is only required until age sixteen, students only need to complete three years of the upper secondary level. They tend to enter the university level at age nineteen, compared to other countries where the age is eighteen. Lastly, the literacy rate among both females and males is 99.9%. The net enrollment ratio of males in secondary school is 93.9%, while the net enrollment rate of females in secondary school is 94.1%.

Italy’s Low Birthrate Problem

Health Care in Italy 2014

Italy has been highly regarded for their health and health care system. As of 2013, the life expectancy was 82.2 years, which gives it the eighth largest life expectancy in the world. Its health care system is considered to be the second best system in the world and has the third best performance in the world. In 1978, the government established a universal health care system, which covers all citizens and is funded through tax revenue. The Ministry of Health administers the universal health system. Doctors are paid through the National Health Service and each family is assigned a family doctor. However, if a family is dissatisfied with the assigned doctor, they may choose to visit another one. Surgeries and any sort of hospitalization are completely covered by the universal coverage. As a result, waiting times for surgeries could be as long as a couple of months, especially in the larger, more populated cities. Prescriptions must be granted by a doctor, and any prescription granted by the family doctor tend to be subsidized by the National Health Service, making the patient only liable to pay for a co-pay. Lastly, as of 2012, the under-five mortality rate is 4 deaths per 1,000 children, and the infant mortality rate is 3 deaths per 1,000 infants.

Other Resources

Italy Population 2013